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College Resource Center : Health Careers : Readings in Subject Area : Resources

Resources

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Pharmacy Organizations and Their Journals
Reference Works
Medicine and Anatomy
Drugs, Dosage Forms, Patient Counseling, Pharmacology, and Adverse Reactions
Filling Prescriptions, Compounding, Calculations, Preparing Parenteral Admixtures,
Drug Interactions, and Toxicology
Pharmaceutical Law, Regulation, Ethics, Communication, and Economics
Training and Certification of Pharmacy Technicians
Other References

Pharmacy Organizations and Their Journals

Since the days of the medieval guilds, when craftspeople and artisans such as silversmiths and carpenters joined together to oversee apprenticeships, training, and business affairs, professional people have created organizations or associations to advance the purposes of their professions. Contemporary pharmacy is no exception. Listed below are some of the most important organizations in the pharmacy profession.

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)

The AACP, founded in 1900, represents all 79 pharmacy colleges and schools in the United States and is the national organization representing the interests of pharmaceutical education and educators. The AACP publishes the journals American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Roster of Faculty and Professional Staff, Profile of Pharmacy Faculty, Profile of Pharmacy Students, and a monthly newsletter, the AACP News. The address of the AACP on the World Wide Web is http://www.aacp.org.

American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS)

The AAPS, formerly an academy of the APhA, represents pharmaceutical scientists employed in academia, industry, government, and other research institutions. It has sections related to such fields as pharmaceutical quality, biotechnology, medicinal and natural products chemistry, pharmaceutics and drug delivery, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and regulatory affairs. Its publications include the journals Pharmaceutical Research, Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management, and the AAPS Newsletter. The address of the AAPS on the World Wide Web is http://www.aaps.org.

American Association of Pharmacy Technicians (AAPT)

Formerly called the APT, the AAPT, founded in 1979, is a national organization, with chapters in many states, representing pharmacy technicians and promoting certification of technicians. The association has established a Code of Ethics for Pharmacy Technicians. The address of the national headquarters is P.O. Box 1447, Greensboro, NC 27402. Its telephone numbers are: toll free phone (877) 368-4771; fax (336) 275-7222. The address of the AAPT on the World Wide Web is http://www.pharmacytechnician.com.

American College of Apothecaries (ACA)

The ACA, a professional association representing community-based pharmacists, publishes the quarterly Voice of the Pharmacist and the ACA Newsletter. The address of the ACA on the World Wide Web is http://www.acainfo.org.

American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP)

The ACCP is a professional and scientific society that provides leadership, education, advocacy, and resources for clinical pharmacists. The ACCP publishes the journal Pharmacotherapy. The address of the ACCP on the World Wide Web is http://www.accp.com.

American Council on Pharmaceutical Education (ACPE)

Founded in 1932, the ACPE is the national accrediting agency for pharmacy education programs recognized by the Secretary of Education. The ACPE is located in East Brunswick, New Jersey, and can be reached at (732) 238-1600. The address of the ACPE on the World Wide Web is http://www.acpe-accredit.org/.

American Pharmacists Association (APhA)

The largest of the national pharmacy organizations, the APhA consists of three academies: the Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management (APhA-APPM), the Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science (APhA-APRS), and the Academy of Students of Pharmacy (APhA-ASP). The APhA publishes the bimonthly Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, the monthly Pharmacy Today newsletter, and the monthly Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The APhA also operates a political action committee, or PAC. According to the APhA, its mission is "to advocate the interests of pharmacists; influence the profession, government, and others in addressing vital pharmaceutical care issues; promote the highest professional and ethical standards; and foster science and research in support of the practice of pharmacy." The address of the APhA on the World Wide Web is http://www.aphanet.org.

American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP)

The ASCP is a professional organization representing consultant pharmacists, practitioners who provide, on a contractual basis, medication distribution and pharmacy expertise to nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, including subacute care and assisted living facilities, psychiatric hospitals, facilities for the mentally retarded, correctional facilities, adult day care centers, hospices, alcohol and drug rehabilitation centers, ambulatory and surgical care centers, and home care providers. The ASCP publishes a journal, The Consultant Pharmacist, and Update-The Monthly Newsletter of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. The address of the ASCP on the World Wide Web is http://www.ascp.com.

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)

The ASHP is a large organization that represents pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), long-term care facilities, home care agencies, and other institutions. The ASHP is a national accrediting organization for pharmacy residency and pharmacy technician training programs. The ASHP publishes the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. The address of the ASHP on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org. The society's Practice Standards are available online at http://www.ashp.org/bestpractices/.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

The DEA enforces federal laws and regulations related to controlled substances. The address of the DEA on the World Wide Web is http://www.usdoj.gov/dea.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

The FDA is the federal government agency charged with primary responsibility for creating regulations governing the safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The FDA enforces the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 and its subsequent amendments, oversees new drug development, approves or disapproves applications to market new drugs, monitors reports of adverse reactions, and has the authority to recall drugs deemed dangerous. The address of the FDA on the World Wide Web is http://www.fda.gov.

Healthcare Distribution Management Association (HDMA)

The HDMA is an association representing those companies that provide pharmacies with drugs and supplies. The address of the HDMA on the World Wide Web is http://www.healthcaredistribution.org.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)

The ISMP is a nonprofit organization that provides education about adverse drug events and their prevention. It independently reviews medication error events that have been voluntarily submitted to the Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) operated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). ISMP is a partner with the FDA MEDWATCH and communicates with the FDA on a regular basis. The address of the ISMP is 1800 Byberry Road, Suite 810, Huntington Valley, Pennsylvania 19006. The telephone number is (215) 947-7797. The address of the ISMP on the World Wide Web is http://www.ismp.org.

National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP)

The NABP is an association of state boards of pharmacy. State boards of pharmacy are the organizations, in the individual states, with the responsibility of licensing pharmacists, conducting inspections, and ensuring compliance with regulations and ethical standards. The NABP supports the rights of states to determine their own pharmacy regulations and guidelines but has worked toward standardizing licensing, especially through the promotion of a national licensing examination, the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination, or NABPLEX. The address of the NABP is 700 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068. The telephone number is (847) 698-6227. The address of the NABP on the World Wide Web is http://www.nabp.net.

National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS)

Founded in 1933, the NACDS is an association representing the large number of community pharmacies that are parts of chain retail operations. This well-funded public relations and political action organization includes as members chief executives of retail chains that include pharmacies. The address of the NACDS on the World Wide Web is http://www.nacds.org.

National Community Pharmacists Association (NCPA)

Formerly known as the National Association of Retail Druggists, or NARD, the NCPA is an association representing independent community pharmacies. The NCPA publishes America's Pharmacist, NCPA Newsletter, Inside Pharmacist Care, Alternate Site Pharmacist, and Regimen: An Update on Long-Term Care Drug Therapy. The address of the NCPA on the World Wide Web is http://www.ncpanet.org.

National Home Infusion Association (NHIA)

Located in Alexandria, Virginia, this association, created by NARD (now NCPA), provides information and support related to the fast-growing field of home infusion. The address of the NHIA on the World Wide Web is http://www.nhianet.org.

National Pharmaceutical Association (NPA)

The NPA is the professional organization representing the community pharmacies of Great Britain. Its address on the World Wide Web is http://www.npa.co.uk.

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)

PhRMA is an association of companies involved in pharmaceutical research. The address of PhRMA on the World Wide Web is http://www.phrma.org.

Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB)

The PTCB publishes the Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination, or PTCE, for those wishing to become Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhTs). The PTCE has been taken, voluntarily, by thousands of technicians around the country and is required for certification in some states. In addition to publishing the PTCE, the PTCB oversees a recertification program for technicians. The address of the PTCB is 2215 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20037. The telephone number is (202) 429-7576. The address of the PTCB on the World Wide Web is http://www.ptcb.org.

Pharmacy Technician Educators Council (PTEC)

PTEC is an association of educators who prepare people for careers as pharmacy technicians. Its official publication is the Journal of Pharmacy Technology. The PTEC address on the World Wide Web is http://www.rxptec.org.

Proprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB)

The PA is a British association representing manufacturers of over-the-counter medications and related products. The address of the PA on the World Wide Web is http://www.pagb.co.uk.

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

The USP is a nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, purity, packaging, and labeling of drug products. The USP provides drug information online. The address of the USP on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

Reference Works

A wide variety of reference works on topics related to pharmacy are available. A complete description of these references is beyond the scope of this book. However, some of the most important reference works are described under appropriate topical headings below.

Medicine and Anatomy

A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. CD-ROM. Atlanta, GA. A.D.A.M. Software, 1998. A new, professional version of the acclaimed human anatomy software. Less expensive teaching versions of this software are available. See the company's site on the World Wide Web at http://www.adam.com.

The Charles Press Handbook of Current Medical Abbreviations. Philadelphia: Charles Press, 1997. A standard reference work on symbols and abbreviations used in medicine. The address of the Charles Press on the World Wide Web is http://www.charlespresspub.com.

Davis, Neil M. Medical Abbreviations: 15,000 Conveniences at the Expense of Communications and Safety. 10th ed. Huntingdon Valley, PA: N.M. Davis Assoc., 2001. A guide to medical abbreviations.

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000. A standard medical dictionary. The address of W. B. Saunders on the World Wide Web is http://us.elsevierhealth.com.

Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Medicine and Surgery. 38th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998. The classic reference work on human anatomy.

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. A standard, authoritative overview of the field of internal medicine. See McGraw-Hill Professional Publications on the World Wide Web at http://www.pbg.mcgraw-hill.com.

The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck, 1999. This is a comprehensive survey of diseases, diagnosis, prevention, symptoms, and treatments. The manual is available in book form; it is searchable online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual; it is available on CD-ROM or diskette from Keyboard Publishing; and in a handheld electronic version from Franklin Electronic Publishers at http://www.franklin.com or (800) 266-5626.

The Merck Manual of Medical Information: Home Edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck, 1997. A simplified and updated version of the Merck Manual for use by lay people. It is available in an online version at the company's World Wide Web site at http://www.merck.com.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 16th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001. A standard textbook on pediatric medicine. The address of W.B. Saunders on the World Wide Web is http://us.elsevierhealth.com.

Stedman's Medical Dictionary: Illustrated in Color. 27th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 2000. A standard medical dictionary. The address of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the World Wide Web is http://www.lww.com.

Drugs, Dosage Forms, Patient Counseling, Pharmacology, and Adverse Reactions

American Drug Index 2002. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 2002. This standard reference work contains more than 20,000 entries on drugs and drug products, including alphabetically listed drug names, cross-indexing, phonetic pronunciations, brand names, manufacturers, generic and/or chemical names, composition and strength, pharmaceutical forms available, package size, use, and common abbreviations. It also contains a listing of orphan drugs. The work is available in hardbound and CD-ROM editions. The address of Facts and Comparisons on the World Wide Web is http://www.factsandcomparisons.com.

American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information 2002 (AHFS). Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2002. The complete text of roughly 1,400 monographs covering about 50,000 commercially available and experimental drugs, including information on uses, interactions, pharmacokinetics, dosage, and administration. The address of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org.

Ansel, Howard C., et al. Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems. 7th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. A superb survey of contemporary dosage forms and delivery systems. The address of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the World Wide Web is http://www.lww.com.

Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 2002. This comprehensive source of information about 16,000 prescription and 6,000 over-the-counter drugs contains monographs about individual drugs and groups of related drugs; product listings in table format providing information on dosage forms and strength, distributor names, costs, package sizes, product identification codes, flavors, colors, and distribution status; and information on therapeutic uses, interactions, and adverse reactions. The publication includes an index of manufacturers and distributors and controlled substance regulations. This reference work is available in hardbound form, on CD-ROM, or in a loose-leaf form that is updated monthly. The address of Facts and Comparisons on the World Wide Web is http://www.factsandcomparisons.com.

Drug Information Fulltext (DIF). Norwood, MA: Silverplatter. A searchable computer database combining two publications: the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information and the Handbook on Injectable Drugs. This database is available on a hard disk, on CD-ROM, or via the Internet. Information may be found at http://www.ovid.com/site/products/.

Drug Interaction Facts. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 2002. This reference, available as a hardbound book, CD-ROM, or loose-leaf book that is updated quarterly, provides comprehensive information on potential interactions that can be reviewed by drug class, generic drug name, or trade name. Provides information on drug/drug and drug/food interactions. The address of Facts and Comparisons on the World Wide Web is http://www.factsandcomparisons.com.

Food and Drug Administration. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Revised annually, with monthly updates, this source lists drug products approved for use in the United States. Also known as the Orange Book because of its orange-colored cover, it is available online at http://www.fda.gov/cder/ob/default.htm. The address of the FDA on the World Wide Web is http://www.fda.gov.

Fudyuma, Janice. What Do I Take? A Consumer's Guide to Nonprescription Drugs. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. A simple-to-read guide to over-the-counter drugs.

Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. An authoritative text on pharmacology and therapeutics containing 67 articles by leading experts in the field. This text provides information for pharmacists to help them answer clinical questions about how drugs work under different conditions in the body. See McGraw-Hill Professional Publications on the World Wide Web at http://www.pbg.mcgraw-hill.com.

Graedon, Joe, and Teresa Graedon. Deadly Drug Interactions: The People's Pharmacy Guide: How to Protect Yourself from Harmful Drug/Drug, Drug/Food, Drug/Vitamin Combinations. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. An easy-to-read guide to dangerous drug interactions.

Koda-Kimble, Maryanne, and Lloyd Yee Young. Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs. 6th ed. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1995.

Index Nominum. Geneva: Swiss Pharmaceutical Society, 1995. A compilation of synonyms, formulas, and therapeutic classes of over 7,000 drugs and 28,000 proprietary preparations from 27 countries. Available in text and CD-ROM formats.

The International Pharmacopoeia. 3rd ed. New York: World Health Organization, 1994. Recommended production methods and specifications for drugs, in four volumes. The World Health Organization is on the World Wide Web at http://www.who.int/en/.

MedCoach CD-ROM (Windows, NT, & Macintosh). Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 1997. A database of information for patients on over 6,000 generic and brand-name drug products, over-the-counter drugs, nutritional and home infusion items, test devices, and infant formulas. Provides information for patients on proper drug use and preparation, drug and food interactions, side effects/adverse effects, therapeutic contraindications, and product storage. Information is tailored to particular patients' needs (pediatric, male or female, geriatric, etc.). Subscription includes quarterly updates. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

Orange Book. See Food and Drug Administration.

Patient Drug Facts, 1996: Professionals Guide to Patient Drug Facts. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1996. This is a comprehensive guide to patient counseling about drugs, available in loose-leaf format for verbal patient counseling and in PC format (on disk) for creation of patient handouts. The address of Facts and Comparisons on the World Wide Web is http://www.factsandcomparisons.com.

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR). 56th ed. Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics, 2002. Available in hardbound and CD-ROM form, with two supplements published twice a year, this standard reference work contains information from package inserts (see below) for more than 4,000 prescription drugs, as well as information on 250 drug manufacturers. Information can be found at http://www.pdrbookstore.com.

Smith, C. G. The Process of New Drug Discovery and Development. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1992. Description of the process by which new drugs are developed, tested, and approved for clinical trials and marketing.

Stringer, Janet L. Basic Concepts in Pharmacology: A Student's Survival Guide. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Survey of basic pharmacological concepts for students. See McGraw-Hill Professional Publications on the World Wide Web at http://www.pbg.mcgraw-hill.com.

United States Pharmacopeia, 23rd Rev.-National Formulary. 20th ed. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2001. Combined compendium of monographs setting official national standards for drug substances and dosage forms (United States Pharmacopeia) and standards for pharmaceutical ingredients (National Formulary). Available in book or CD-ROM form and in English- and Spanish-language editions. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2001. An authoritative guide to drug names, including chemical names, brand names, manufacturers, molecular formulas, therapeutic uses, and chemical structures. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

USP Drug Information (USP DI). Vol. I. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2002. A comprehensive source of in-depth drug information, available in book or CD-ROM form and in English- and Spanish-language editions. Describes medically accepted uses of more than 11,000 generic and brand-name products. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

USP Drug Information (USP DI). Vol. II. Advice for the Patient. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2002. Contains monographs corresponding to those in the USP DI, Vol. I, but simplified for the purpose of patient education and counseling. Available in English- and Spanish-language editions. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

USP Drug Information (USP DI). Vol. III. Approved Drug Products and Legal Requirements. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 2002. Therapeutic equivalence information and selected federal requirements that affect the prescribing and dispensing of prescription drugs and controlled substances. Includes the FDA Orange Book; USP-NF requirements for labeling, storage, packaging, and quality; federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act provisions relating to drugs for human use; portions of the Controlled Substance Act Regulations; and the FDA's Good Manufacturing Practice regulations for finished pharmaceuticals. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org.

Filling Prescriptions, Compounding, Calculations, Preparing Parenteral Admixtures, Drug Interactions, and Toxicology

Benitz, William E., and David S. Tatro. The Pediatric Drug Handbook. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, 1995. Information on drugs, dosage forms, and administration for pediatric patients. The address of Mosby on the World Wide Web is http://us.elsevierhealth.com.

Davies, D. M. Textbook of Adverse Drug Reactions. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. A standard textbook on the subject. The address of Oxford University Press on the World Wide Web is http://www.oup.com/us/.

Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies. 6th ed. New York: Appleton & Lange, 1998. Information on treating toxicologic emergencies. The medical titles of Appleton & Lange are distributed by McGraw-Hill and may be found at that Web site: http://www.pbg.mcgraw-hill.com.

Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 2 vols. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 1996-1997. A reference work on over-the-counter medications. The address of the American Pharmacists Association on the World Wide Web is http://www.aphanet.org.

Hunt, Max L., Jr. Training Manual for Intravenous Admixture Personnel. 5th ed. Chicago: Bonus Books, 1995. A manual for training people to create parenteral preparations. The address of Bonus Books on the World Wide Web is http://www.bonus-books.com.

The King Guide to Parenteral Admixtures, 2001 Edition. Napa, CA: King Guide Publications, 2001. Available in four loose-leaf volumes, on microfiche, and on CD-ROM, the King Guide provides 350 monographs on compatibility and stability information critical to determining the advisability of preparing admixtures of drugs for parenteral administration. The guide is updated quarterly. The address of King Publications on the World Wide Web is http://www.kingguide.com.

Nahata, Milap C., and Thomas F. Hipple. Pediatric Drug Formulations. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Harvey Whitney, 1997. Information on formulation and compounding of drugs for pediatric patients. The address of Harvey Whitney Books on the World Wide Web is http://www.hwbooks.com.

Poisindex System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex. A computerized poison information system. The address of Micromedex on the World Wide Web is http://www.micromedex.com.

Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacology. 20th ed. Lippincott, 2000. The compounding "bible" of the pharmacy profession.

Stoklosa, Mitchell J., and Howard C. Ansel. Pharmaceutical Calculations. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 2001. A clear, concise, thorough introduction to pharmaceutical mathematics. The address of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the World Wide Web is http://www.lww.com.

Trissel, Lawrence A. Handbook on Injectable Drugs, with Supplement. 11th ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2000. Provides information on stability and compatibility of injectable drug products, including formulations, concentrations, and pH values. The address of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org.

Understanding and Preventing Errors in Medication Orders and Prescription Writing. Bethesda, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 1998. An education resource, consisting of lecture materials, videotapes, and 35 mm slides describing medication errors that arise from poorly written orders and prescriptions, using examples of actual reports received through the USP Medication Errors Reporting Program. Contains recommendations for preventing errors. The address of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention on the World Wide Web is http://www.usp.org; search within USP Educational Programs.

Pharmaceutical Law, Regulation, Ethics, Communication, and Economics

Abood, Richard R., and David B. Brushwood. Pharmacy Practice and the Law. 3rd ed. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen, 2000. A survey of contemporary pharmacy law, covering the entire range of legal issues in pharmacy, including major acts, regulations, regulatory agencies, torts, malpractice liability, and legal issues related to hospital pharmacies, long-term care, third-party prescription programs, and managed care, with cases. The address of Aspen Publishers on the World Wide Web is http://www.aspenpublishers.com.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 21, Food and Drugs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents. Annually revised compilation of federal Food and Drug Administration regulations. The address of the Government Printing Office on the World Wide Web is http://www.access.gpo.gov.

Cramer, Joyce A., and Bert Spilker. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics: An Introduction. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1997. A general survey of the economics of pharmacy. The address of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins on the World Wide Web is http://www.lww.com.

Federal Register. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents. Daily publication listing new federal regulations. The address of the Government Printing Office on the World Wide Web is http://www.access.gpo.gov.

Practice Standards of ASHP, 1997–1998. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1997. Standards for hospital pharmacy practice. The address of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org.

Smith, Mickey, et al. Pharmacy Ethics. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1991. The address of Haworth Press on the World Wide Web is http://www.haworthpressinc.com.

Tootelian, Dennis H., and Ralph M. Gaedeke. Essentials of Pharmacy Management. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, 1993. Information on managing a retail pharmacy operation. The address of Mosby on the World Wide Web is http://us.elsevierhealth.com.

Training and Certification of Pharmacy Technicians

Ballington, Don A., and Mary M. Laughlin. Pharmacology for Technicians. 2nd ed. St. Paul, MN: EMC/Paradigm, 2003. Presents the basic principles of pharmacology and the essential characteristics of commonly prescribed drug classes. The address of EMC/Paradigm on the World Wide Web is http://www.emcp.com.

Ballington, Don A., and Mary M. Laughlin. Pharmacy Calculation for Technicians. 2nd ed. St. Paul, MN: EMC/Paradigm, 2003. Offers a review of basic mathematics as applied to common pharmaceutical calculations. The address of EMC/Paradigm on the World Wide Web is http://www.emcp.com.

Idsvoog, Peter B. Manual for Hospital Pharmacy Technicians: A Programmed Course in Basic Skills. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1977. The address of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org.

Manual for Pharmacy Technicians. 2d ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998. The address of the American Society of Helath-System Pharmacists on the World Wide Web is http://www.ashp.org.

Moss, Susan. Pharmacy Technician Certification Quick Study Guide. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 1995. A study guide for the Pharmacy Technician Certification Examination. The address of the American Pharmacists Association on the World Wide Web is http://www.aphanet.org.

Reifman, Noah. Certification Review for Pharmacy Technicians. 5th ed. Harvey Whitney Books, 2000. The address of Harvey Whitney Books on the World Wide Web is http://www.hwbooks.com.

Other References

Gerson, Cyrelle K. More Than Dispensing: A Handbook on Providing Pharmacists Services to Long Term Care Facilities. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 1980. The address of the American Pharmacists Association on the World Wide Web is http://www.aphanet.org.

Journal of Pharmacy Technology is the official publication of the Pharmacy Technician Educators Council. This journal is published by Harvey Whitney Books, which can be contacted by e-mail at hwb@hwbooks.com, by telephone at (513) 793-3555, or by fax at (513) 793-3600. The address of Harvey Whitney Books on the World Wide Web is http://www.hwbooks.com.

Meldrum, Helen. Interpersonal Communication in Pharmaceutical Care. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, 1994. The address of the Haworth Press on the World Wide Web is http://www.haworthpressinc.com.

RxTrek, a Web site providing information and links for pharmacy technicians, is located at http://www.rxtrek.net.

The World Wide Web Virtual Library maintains a large list of pharmacy links at http://www.pharmacy.org.



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